Emotions: Definition, Process, Types, Factors, Disturbance, Controlling, etc
Emotions or sometimes called affection is one of the symptoms of the soul or mental processes that can be experienced by humans. In everyday life, we may also know that the term emotion is often associated with negative things, such as “don’t be emotional yet! let’s talk about it.” Yes, unfortunately emotions are often associated with such negativity.
However, this may not be without reason, because indeed overflowing emotional symptoms can hinder other human mental processes, such as cognitive (able to think clearly), to the point where you lose your ego so that you can do anything outside of social norms when those emotions dominate your mind. Therefore, emotion is a symptom of the soul which is very important to study in humans.
Of course, emotions are not only in the form of negative affections such as anxiety, fear, and anger. Emotions also have many other positive affections such as joy, joy, and feelings of love which actually have a good impact on one’s soul or mental processes. Here are various explanations about emotion or affection in humans.
Understanding Emotions / Affection
In some dictionaries or glossaries emotions are often interpreted as various strong feelings in the form of feelings of hate, fear, anger, love, joy and sadness. Another lexical understanding of emotion can be interpreted as a feeling that exists within oneself, which can be in the form of feelings of pleasure or displeasure, feelings of good or bad.
Meanwhile, etymologically, emotion comes from the French word emotion, which comes from emouvoier, ‘excite’, which is based on the Latin word emovere, which consists of the words e- (variant or ex-), which means ‘out’ and movere, meaning ‘to move’ (the term “motivation” also comes from the word movere) (Asrori, 2020, p. 62). Thus, etymologically, emotion is moving out. Moving out itself can have implications for something like feelings being released or overflowed.
Emotion According to Experts
Of course, psychologists also have different views or at least editorials regarding the definition or understanding of this emotion. For example, according to Saleh (2018, p. 107) emotion is a condition that is caused by certain (special) situations, and emotions tend to occur in relation to behavior that leads (approach) or avoids (avoidance) towards something, and this behavior is generally accompanied by the presence of physical expression, so that other people can know that someone is experiencing emotions.
This understanding is based on the behavior of individuals who experience emotions, generally no longer paying attention to their surroundings, although some people in certain situations or circumstances can still control them. Angry or sad emotions can of course be the clearest examples in this situation, but we will also find someone who is so happy that he experiences euphoria sometimes forgets everything so that maybe his pleasure actually hurts other people’s feelings. “The world seems to belong to both of us” is also a cliche anecdote evoked by the affection of love.
Meanwhile, according to James & Large (in Warsah & Daheri, 2021, p. 99) emotion is the result of a person’s perception of the changes that occur in the body in response to stimuli that come from outside. That is, emotions are generated by stimuli from outside the person himself. Whether it’s because there are fun things that make him happy, or there is someone who shows affection so that he is stimulated to do the same thing.
Syamsuddin further (in Asrori, 2020, p. 62) adds that emotion is a complex feeling (a complex feeling state) and a stir up state that accompanies or appears before or after the occurrence of a behavior. This means that emotions are complex situations, which can be in the form of feelings or vibrations of the soul which are marked by biological changes that appear to accompany the occurrence of a behavior.
Furthermore, Crow and Crow (1962 in Warsah & Daheri, 2021, p. 101) define emotion as a state of turmoil in the individual that functions as an inner adjustment (adjustment from within) to the environment to achieve individual welfare and safety. Thus emotions are things that must be adjusted or controlled to adapt to the environment.
It can be concluded that emotion is a state in the form of an atmosphere or complex feelings that arise in certain situations and stimuli from within or outside the individual (environment) marked by biological (physical) changes accompanying individual behavior that can be managed or controlled so that other people know or do not know it in order to adapt to the situation or environment that is being faced.
Emotion Display Rules
Previously it was explained that emotions can be overflowing and uncontrollable, or they can still be controlled and can even be shown or even hidden to others. This is related to the opinion put forward by Ekman and Friesen (Carlson, 1987 in Saleh, 2018, p. 108) which are known as display rules which consist of three rules (rules), namely masking, modulation, and simulation.
Masking is the state of a person who can hide or cover up the emotions he is experiencing. The emotions they experience do not come out through their biological expressions. For example, a person is actually very sad because he lost a family member. The sadness can be drowned out or masked by the absence of the physical symptoms that make it appear (eg crying).
In modulation (modulation) individuals who cannot fully absorb their physical symptoms but can only reduce them. So, for example, because he is sad, he cries (a physical symptom) but his tears are not so loud.
Individuals who do not experience emotions can pretend to experience emotions by showing physical symptoms.
According to Ekman and Friesen (Carlson, 1987) these display rules are influenced by cultural elements. For example, in some norms it is considered unethical if we cry in public even if we lose a family member, then the individual tends not to cry and tries to mask his feelings. In some cultures, there are those who pay people to simulate crying to show how loved or cared for the person who has just returned, so there are some people who are actually good at simulating sadness.
Kinds of Affect/Emotion
The types of emotion or affection consist of two main umbrellas, namely positive affect and negative affect. Positive affect is an emotion that creates positive feelings in those who experience it, including love, affection, joy, joy, admiration and so on (Warsah & Daheri, 2021, p. 106). Meanwhile, affect or negative or unpleasant emotions are emotions that cause negative feelings in those who experience them, which include sadness, anger, hatred, fear and so on (Warsah & Daheri, 2021, p. 106).
The main source of anger is things that interfere with activities to achieve their goals. Thus, the tension that occurs in the activity does not subside, it even increases to channel the tension someone expresses anger because the goal is not achieved and does not match what he wants (Susanti, 2015 in Warsah & Daheri, 2021, p. 106).
Fear is a feeling that strongly encourages individuals to stay away from something and avoid contact with it as much as possible.
This emotion is a picture of pleasure for the perpetrator, of course they will approach him. Then what is the definition of self-love? Of course it is the same if we are asked to define the conditions in happiness. In his book The Art of Loving, Erich From has so far talked about love as a tool to overcome human separation, as a fulfillment of the longing for unity (Setiawan, 2018 in Warsah & Daheri, 2021, p. 106).
A person begins to hide the open expression of his emotions, and will only overflow within himself. For example, there is no motivation to do anything and loss of desire to live and desire to commit suicide (Dirganyuni, 2016 in Warsah & Daheri, 2021, p. 107).
Happiness is an expression of the circle, namely the feeling of being free from tension. Usually the joy is caused by things that are sudden (surprise) and joy is usually social, that is, it involves other people around the person who is happy.
Jealousy is a special form of worry that is based on a lack of self-confidence and the fear of losing someone’s affection. Someone who has jealousy always has an attitude of hatred towards his rival.
Worry or anxiety is a fear that has no clear object or no object at all. Worry causes displeasure, restlessness, restlessness, insecurity.
The dynamic process of the occurrence of an emotion is expressed by Putchik (in Asrori, 2020, p. 65) in his theory which describes the emotional elements and emotional flow which can explain the dynamics of emotions in detail. These emotional elements are:
inferred cognition (cognitive thoughts),
feeling state (state of feeling),
physiological arousal (emotional physiology),
impulse to action (impulse from the heart to act),
evert behavior (behavior that appears or is seen), and
From this theory, Plutchik creates emotional flows which he calls feedback loops. The emotional dynamics that occur according to “Feedback Loops Plutchik” are a rotating process or a feedback process, where behavior appears to have an effect that acts as a result of an earlier event and can also be a stimulus that initiates a subsequent event.
From the description of dynamics and emotions above, it can be concluded that emotional dynamics is a rotating process or a feedback process, where behavior appears to have an effect that acts as a result of a previous event and can also be a stimulus that initiates a subsequent event.
Emotions are strong feelings that can overflow and make us lose control of all our mental phenomena or mental processes if they are not controlled. Therefore, controlling emotions is an ability that must be honed continuously in carrying out an ideal life. In connection with this, according to Sobur (2016, pp. 43-44) there are several rules for controlling emotions, namely as follows.
Deal with the emotion.
People who boast that they are not afraid of danger, are actually multiplying their own fear. Not only were they afraid of facing actual danger, but also afraid of meeting it. This additional source of emotion can be avoided by confronting the feared reality or the reality that causes feelings of anger.
If possible, reinterpret the situation.
Emotion is a form of an interpretation. It is not the stimulation itself that causes the emotional reaction, but the stimulus that is misinterpreted. For example, children usually show feelings of fear when rocked, but if the rocking action is accompanied by joking, the child even responds with pleasure.
Develop a sense of humor and a realistic attitude.
In such cases, humor and a realistic attitude can help. Laughter can relieve emotional tension. The extra energy provided by the internal changes must be channeled. Therefore, to be able to relax again, people need to do an activity.
Deal directly with the source of the emotional problem.
Solving problems or problems, is basically much better than controlling the emotions involved in these problems. For example, instead of trying to control the fear of losing a position, it is better to try to develop yourself and become an expert in a job related to that position.
Emotions do have great power.
Realize that emotions do have great power of motion, therefore we can regulate and direct them in such a way, so that these emotions move us towards a more enjoyable and more efficient life.
Factors Causing Emotions
The factors that influence or cause our emotions to appear consist of internal and external factors which will be presented as follows.
Generally, a person’s emotions appear closely related to what a person feels individually. They feel dissatisfied, self-loathing and unhappy. The emotional disturbances they experience include the following.
They feel that their physical needs are not properly met, causing dissatisfaction, anxiety and hatred of what they are experiencing.
They feel hated, wasted, do not understand and are not accepted by anyone including their parents.
Feeling more hindered, denied, humiliated and broken than supported, loved and responded to, especially their ideas.
Feeling inadequate or stupid.
Feeling displeased with their family life which is not harmonious, such as quarreling, being rude, grumpy, fussy and divorced.
Feeling suffering because they are jealous of their siblings because they are unfairly treated and differentiated (Ilahi, et al. 2018).
According to Cole (1963 in Warsah & Daheri, 2021, p. 109) the factors that influence negative emotions are as follows.
Their parents, guardians, or teachers treat them like small children whose self-esteem is abused.
When hindered, children build intimacy with the opposite sex.
Too much is hindered rather than supported, for example they are more blamed, criticized by parents, guardians, or teachers, will tend to become angry and express it by going against the wishes of parents, berating teachers, or joining a gang and acting destructively (destructively).
Being treated unfairly by parents, for example by comparing with their more accomplished siblings and others.
Feeling that their needs are not being met by their parents even though their parents are capable.
Feeling treated in an authoritarian manner, such as being demanded to obey, being criticized, punished and humiliated.
There are many theories that try to find out the causes and how emotional disturbances can occur in humans. According to Warsah & Daheri (2021, pp. 104-105) these emotional disturbance theories are grouped into three categories, some of which are as follows.
Environmental theory assumes that mental illness is caused by various events that cause stress. This view assumes that this event itself is the direct cause of emotional tension. Ordinary people do not hesitate to assert, for example, that a child cries because he is made fun of. He believed literally that the banter was the proximate cause of the crying. According to this view, emotional stress can only be eliminated if the problem of tension is eliminated. As long as the problem persists, there is usually not much that can be done to relieve the feelings that accompany it.
The most widely held professional view of mental disorders is one that seeks to discover the conscious emotional experiences experienced by a troubled child and then bring these forgotten and feared memories into consciousness, so that they can be seen from a more realistic angle. Before these fears and guilt were realized, children were thought to be living with subconscious minds filled with destructive substances that could not be seen, but were still very active in life. In other words, according to this theory it is not the environment or other people that cause disturbances, but the feeling that the individual is aware of himself.
According to this theory, mental suffering is not caused directly by our problems or our feeling that we are aware of these problems, but from wrong and irrational opinions, whether consciously or unconsciously about the problems we face. How irrational these ideas are; and finally he is encouraged to behave differently through a new angle of knowledge. This is all it takes to calm emotional disturbances. It doesn’t matter whether the child is neglected or hates his father. All the trouble about such a thing comes from wrong thinking about it. When it is realized that the thoughts are wrong, the distraction will disappear.
There are several theories that highlight emotions. Not all theories about emotion have the same starting point. There are several different starting points used to analyze this emotional problem. Regarding these theories can be stated as follows.
The theory is based on the emotional relationship with physical symptoms.
A theory that only tries to classify and describe emotional experiences.
Seeing emotions in relation to behavior, in this case, is how it relates to motivation.
Seeing emotions in relation to cognitive aspects. (Morgan, et al., 1984 in Saleh, 2018, p. 110).
Some examples of some of these theories will be explained in the presentation below.
According to this theory, physical symptoms are a result of the emotions experienced by individuals, so individuals experience emotions first and then experience changes in their bodies. Therefore this theory or opinion is known as the central theory, put forward by Canon. So according to this theory, physical phenomena are the result of the emergence of emotions in individuals (Purwoko, 2018).
The Peripheral Theory
The description of this theory is the opposite of the theory above, that physical symptoms are precisely the cause of these emotions. According to this theory, people cry not because they are sad, but because they are sad because they cry. This theory was put forward by James and Lange, so it is often referred to as the James-Lange theory of emotion. Meanwhile, experts conducted experiments on how far this theory was true, and generally stated that this theory was not correct (Hendriani, 2018 in Warsah & Daheri, 2021 , p. 110).
According to this opinion that emotion is a personal activity, in which this person cannot be separated physically and psychologically in a separate substance. Thus every emotion in feeling is automatically affected by the body. This theory was put forward by J. Linchoten (Sarlito, 2010 in Warsah & Daheri, 2021, p. 110).
The James-Lange theory
The emotions felt are the perceptions of bodily changes. One of the earliest theories on emotion succinctly stated by the American Psychologist William James (in Warsah & Daheri, 2021, p. 111) that we feel sad because we cry, angry because we attack, afraid they tremble. This theory was proposed in the late 19th century by James and the European psychologist Carl Lange, who distorted the general notion of emotion from the inside out.