Inclusive Education: Definition, Purpose, Legal Basis, etc

Inclusive Education: Definition, Purpose, Legal Basis, etc


inclusive education

Definition of Inclusive Education

Inclusive education is a system of providing education for children who have certain limitations and other children who are put together without considering their respective limitations (Garnida, 2015, p. 48). This means that regular classes will accommodate children with special needs without exception.



Meanwhile, Divine (2013, p. 24) states that inclusive education is defined as a concept that accommodates all children with special needs or children who have reading and writing difficulties. All children without exception can easily obtain appropriate education. Why is inclusive education carried out? The goal is for people with reading and writing difficulties to be able to overcome their weaknesses and be able to socialize well.



Furthermore, Staub and Peck (in Efendi, 2013, p. 25) argue that inclusive education is the full placement of children with mild, moderate and severe disabilities in regular classes. This shows that the regular class is a place of learning that is relevant and open to children with disabilities, regardless of their disabilities.


So what are children with special needs like? Here’s an explanation.



The child with special needed

According to Syamsul (2010) Children with special needs or ABK can be classified into:


Have a sensory disorder, such as a visual or hearing disability,

mental deviations, including gifted and mentally retarded,

communication disorders, including language and speech problems,

learning disabilities, including serious learning problems due to physical disabilities,

deviant behavior or emotional disturbances,

physical and health disabilities.

In relation to the classification of ABK, Garnida (2015) mentions that there are several groups of disabilities which include:



deaf/and/or speech impaired,

mentally disabled,



children with specific learning disorders,

slow learner (slow learner),

a special intelligent child and special talent (CIBI), and

children with autism (Autism).

In addition, based on the cause, ABK can be grouped into two, namely temporary and permanent disorders. Permanent disorders come from birth or genetics, while temporary disorders occur due to the environment, such as natural disasters, accidents, etc.



Inclusive Education Goals

In general, the goal of inclusive education is still based on Law no. 20 of 2003 concerning the National Education System, article 1 paragraph 1, namely education is a conscious and planned effort to create a learning atmosphere and learning process so that students actively develop their personal potential to have religious spiritual strength, self-control, personality, intelligence, noble character and skills. needed by himself, society, nation and state


Therefore, the main goal of inclusive education is to fulfill human rights to education. Children with special needs also have the same rights as ordinary children.



Meanwhile, according to Tarmansyah (2007, pp. 112-113) the practical goals to be achieved in inclusive education can be divided into direct goals by students, teachers, parents, and society which will be described below.


Student Objectives

The goals to be achieved by students in participating in inclusive learning activities include the following.


The development of self-confidence in children, feeling proud of themselves for their achievements.

Students can learn independently, by trying to understand and apply the lessons they get at school into everyday life.

Students are able to interact actively with their friends, teachers, schools and the community.

Students can learn to accept differences, and be able to adapt in overcoming these differences.

Master’s Goals

The goals to be achieved by teachers or educators in implementing inclusive education include the following.


Teachers will have the opportunity to learn from teaching in an inclusive setting.

Skilled in conducting learning to students who have diverse backgrounds.

Able to overcome various challenges in providing services to all children.

Be positive towards parents, society and children in various situations.

Having the opportunity to explore and develop and apply new ideas through communication with children in the school and community environment.

Parents’ Goals

The goals to be achieved by parents in inclusive education include the following.


Parents can learn more about how to educate and guide their children better at home, by using the techniques teachers use at school.

Parents will be personally involved, and will feel that their existence is more important in helping children to learn.

Parents will feel valued, feel themselves as equal partners in providing quality learning opportunities to their children.

Parents know that their children and all children in school receive quality education according to the abilities of each individual child.

Community Goals

The goals that are expected to be achieved by the general public in the implementation of inclusive education include the following.


The community will feel a sense of pride because more children are attending school in their neighborhood.

All the children in the community will be uplifted and become potential resources, what will be more important is that the community will be more involved in the school in order to create a better relationship between the school and the community.

Principles of Inclusive Learning

Inclusive learning activities must be designed according to the needs, abilities, and characteristics of students and refer to the developed curriculum. Basically the principle of inclusive learning has two principles, namely general principles and special principles.


General Principles of Inclusive Education

Some general principles that apply to inclusive learning are as follows:


motivational principle,

teachers should always motivate students to always be passionate about learning;

background/context principle,

the teacher explains the material using examples in the environment around students;


the teacher must determine the learning objectives appropriately and use appropriate learning strategies as well;

principles of social relations,

teachers must strive for interactive learning to promote student interaction with teachers and fellow students;

the principle of learning while working,

teachers provide opportunities for students to experiment and discover new things during learning;


the teacher strives for students to be able to be independent after learning;

discover principle,

teachers encourage students to be actively involved physically, mentally, socially and emotionally;

problem solving principle,

teachers should often give problems to train students to solve problems (Garnida, 2015, p. 115).

Special Principles of Inclusive Education

Meanwhile, Johnsen & Skjorten (2003) put forward the principles of implementing special learning from inclusive education, including the following:



principles that must be considered include the principle of concreteness, the principle of unified experience, and the principle of learning by doing;

Deaf / Speech Impaired,

includes the principle of direction of faces, the principle of direction of sound, and the principle of modeling;


includes the principle of accelerated learning / acceleration, and the principle of enrichment,

Mentally disabled,

includes the principle of affection, the principle of modeling, and the principle of habilitation and rehabilitation,


the principles that must be considered are medical services, including determining the form of therapy and the frequency of exercises, as well as establishing cooperation with GPK if necessary; educational services, including encouraging students to obtain recommendations from psychologists and creating educational programs tailored to their needs; and social services to interact in their environment,


includes the principles of need and activity, the principle of directed freedom, the principle of using free time, the principle of kinship and obedience, the principle of loyal friends and idols and protection, the principle of interest and ability, the principle of emotional, social and behavior, the principle of discipline, and the principle of compassion.

Characteristics of Inclusive Education

Characteristics in inclusive education are incorporated in several ways such as relationships, abilities, seating arrangements, learning materials, resources and evaluation which are explained as follows.



Friendly and warm, an example for deaf children: the teacher is always nearby with a face towards the child and a smile. Class assistants (parents) praise deaf children and help others.


Teachers, students with different backgrounds and abilities and parents as companions.

Seating arrangements

Various seating arrangements such as sitting in groups on the floor in a circle or sitting on benches together so they can see each other.

Study material

Various materials for all subjects, examples of learning mathematics are conveyed through activities that are more interesting, challenging and fun through role playing using posters and wayang for language lessons.


Teachers make daily plans involving children, for example asking children to bring learning media that is cheap and easy to get to class to be used in certain lessons.


Assessment, observation, portfolio, namely children’s work within a certain period of time is collected and assessed (Marthan, 2007, p. 152).

Inclusive School Curriculum

In general, the curriculum used in inclusive schools is the regular children’s curriculum which is adjusted (modified according) to the students’ initial abilities and characteristics. According to the PLB Directorate (Tarmansyah, 2007, p. 168) curriculum modifications for inclusive education can be carried out through modifications to time allocation, modifications to content/materials, modifications to teaching and learning processes, modifications to facilities and infrastructure, modifications to the environment for learning, and modifications to classroom management.


The inclusive education curriculum should be adapted to the needs of the child. Furthermore, Tarmansyah (2007, p. 154) explains that the curriculum in inclusive schools must be modified to suit the needs of both children, both children with special needs and ordinary children, and the modifications referred to include:


Modification regarding the understanding that model theory is always a simplified representation of complex reality,

The second modification is regarding aspects of the curriculum that are specifically focused on learning which will be discussed more in learning practice.

Legal Basis for Inclusive Education

Inclusive education in Indonesia certainly has its own legal or juridical basis as a basis for implementing the program. The legal basis for inclusive education in Indonesia is as follows.


1. UUD 1945 (amendment)

Article 31 paragraph (1) every citizen has the right to education, paragraph (2) every citizen is obliged to attend basic education and the government is obliged to finance it.


2. Law no. 23 of 2002 concerning Child Protection

Article 48 reads that the government is obliged to provide basic education for at least nine years for all children, article 49 states, the government, families and parents are obliged to provide the widest opportunity for children to obtain education.


3. Law no. 20 of 2003 concerning the National Education System

Article 5 paragraph (1) Every citizen has the same right to obtain quality education. Paragraph (2) Citizens who have physical, emotional, mental, intellectual and/or social disorders are entitled to special education. Paragraph (3) ) citizens in remote or underdeveloped areas as well as indigenous peoples who are remote have the right to receive special service education., paragraph (4) citizens who have potential intelligence and special talents are entitled to special education.


Then article 11 paragraph (1) The Government and Regional Governments are obliged to provide services and facilities, as well as guarantee the implementation of quality education for every citizen without discrimination, paragraph (2) The Government and Regional Governments are obliged to guarantee the availability of funds to provide education for every citizen who aged seven to fifteen years.


Furthermore, Article 12 paragraph (1) every student in each education unit has the right to: (b) get educational services according to their talents, interests and abilities; (e) moving to educational programs in other educational channels and units that are equivalent. And article 32 paragraph (1) special education is education for students who have a level of difficulty in participating in the learning process due to physical, emotional, mental, social, and/or potential intelligence and special talent potential, paragraph (2) special service education is education for students in remote or underdeveloped areas, isolated indigenous peoples, and/or experiencing natural disasters, social disasters, and being economically disadvantaged.


4. Government Regulation no. 19 of 2005 concerning National Education Standards

Article 2 paragraph (1) The National Education Standards Environment includes content standards, process standards, graduate competency standards, educator and education standards, facilities and infrastructure standards, management standards, financing standards, and assessment standards. It was also explained that special education units consist of SDLB, SMPLB, SMALB. Fifth, circular letter of the Director General of Elementary Education Ministry of National Education No. 380/C.C6/MN/2003 regarding inclusive education: organize and develop in each district/city at least four schools, consisting of elementary, middle, high school and vocational schools.

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