Job Training: Definition, Types, Objectives, Benefits, Indicators & Process

Job Training: Definition, Types, Objectives, Benefits, Indicators & Process

Definition of Job Training

Job training is a process to improve employee competence (Sutrisno, 2019, p. 68). Of course, this process refers to the implementation of education that is structured in such a way as to achieve the goal. As expressed by Hasibuan (2017, p. 70) which reveals that training is a short-term educational process using systematic and organized procedures.


Wexley & Yulk further (in Widodo, 2015, p. 80) explain that training and job development refers to matters relating to planned efforts carried out to achieve mastery of the skills, knowledge, and attitudes of employees or members of the organization. This means that training is a holistic activity that does not only involve learning activities or providing knowledge, but can include training in physical skills, new abilities needed by the organization, up to the evaluation stage as well.


Job training, employee training, or what is often referred to as training in these companies is often associated with the needs of new employees who are considered unable to adapt and really understand their jobs. In fact, job training actually knows no boundaries of length of service or even position, as stated by Dessler (2019, p. 284) that training is a process of teaching new or existing employees the basic skills they need to carry out their jobs.


Basic skills do not only mean light or easy skills, but can also refer to various fundamental skills that even corporate level officials may not possess. An example is how an institution such as the Ministry of State-Owned Enterprises could conduct job training for its commissioners to ensure they can do their job well.


It can be concluded that job training is a planned effort and process that is systematic and organized to improve the competence of members of the organization both in terms of skills, knowledge and attitudes needed to carry out work and achieve common goals of the organization or company.


Types of Training


It has been disclosed that this training or job training does not only refer to the process of training new employees. In fact, there are many types of job training that have been applied by corporate organizations. According to Kaswan (2016, p. 213) several types of job training include the following


induction Training,

aims to introduce the organization to newly hired employees, this is a short and informative training given immediately after joining the organization, the aim is to provide “at a glance” information to employees.


job Training,

relates to a specific job and its purpose is to provide appropriate information and guidance to employees so as to enable them to carry out their work in a systematic, precise, efficient, and ultimately confident manner.


Promotional training,

is training given after promotion but before joining a higher position, the aim is to provide opportunities for employees to adapt to job duties at a higher level.


refresher Training,

is updating the professional skills, information and experience of persons occupying key executive positions.


Training for managerial development,

is training provided to managers to increase their efficiency and thereby enable them to accept higher positions, companies should provide all types of training.


Purpose of Job Training


The purpose of job training in essence is to improve the knowledge, skills, attitudes and competencies of members of the organization in general or specifically on the specific goals to be achieved by the organization itself. According to Mangkunegara (2017, p. 45) some of the objectives of job training that are usually required by companies include the following.


Increasing the appreciation of the spirit of ideology (such as philosophy to the vision and mission of the company).


Increase work productivity.


Increase the determination of human resource planning.


Establish a moral attitude and morale.


Increase stimulation so that employees are able to achieve optimally.


Improve occupational health and safety.


Avoid obsolete (absolescene).


Improve employee development.


Improve work quality.


Increase stimulation so that employees are able to achieve optimally.


Benefits of Job Training


Of course, besides being able to achieve certain goals, job training also has many benefits that can be felt directly by both members and the organization itself. Some of the benefits of training according to Suparyadi (2015, p. 185) include the following.


Increasing independence Employees who master knowledge and have skills in their field of work will be more independent and need little assistance from superiors to carry out their work.


Increase motivation The motivation of employees who are trained according to their field of work will increase. This is caused by two things, namely, first, by mastering the knowledge and skills to carry out their work, they become more confident and confident in being able to do it well. Second, trainers provide awareness to employees that they are part of and their contribution is needed by the organization, so they feel valued by the organization.


Fostering a sense of belonging A sense of being recognized for their existence and contribution is needed by the organization as well as understanding of organizational goals obtained during training and can foster a sense of responsibility in each employee for the future and existence of the organization.


Reducing employee turnover Employees who have knowledge and skills in their field of work will feel comfortable working. Convenience at work is caused by a sense of being valued or recognized for their existence and contribution by the company.


Increase company profits Employees who have been properly trained will be able to produce goods or services that can satisfy customers, so that sustainable effects can occur such as being able to encourage customers to become loyal or loyal and will make repurchases and can even recommend other people to consume or use goods or services like them. In this way, it is very possible for sales to increase, so that the company’s profits can increase.


Training Process


The training process must be carried out in a structured, systematic, integrated and objective manner in order to provide maximum benefits. According to Dessler (2019, pp. 286-314) one model of effective job training that can be applied to various types of training is a five-step training process called ADDIE (analysis, design, develop, implement, evaluate) with a description of the process or stages training as follows.


1. Analysis of training needs


A training needs analysis can address an employer’s strategic/long-term training needs and/or current training needs. Strategic training needs analysis identifies the training employees will need to fill new jobs in the future. The results from this analysis will support employer succession planning. While the analysis of current training needs, most training efforts aim to improve current performance, especially training new employees, and those who are underperforming.


At this needs analysis stage, there are several analyzes that can be carried out, including:


task Analysis,

detailed study of a job to determine the specific skills required. For task analysis job descriptions and job specifications are essential. Both state the specific duties and skills of the job, which serve as a basic reference in determining the required training;


talent Management,

consolidating, usually in a single diagram, a precise view of the competencies a person will need to do the job well;


performance Analysis,

the process of verifying if there are performance deficiencies and determining whether the employer should correct the deficiencies through training or other means.


Overall training program design


This stage plans the entire training program, starting from training objectives, delivery methods, materials provided, program evaluation.


3. Develop the program


Program development means actually assembling the content and training materials of the program based on the designs that have been implemented.


4. Implement training


It is at this stage that the job training is actually implemented. This training can be carried out using one or more training methods.


5. Evaluate the effectiveness of the training


The last stage of this training is an activity to ensure the success of the training program which is measured by the reactions of the trainees, what the trainees learn from the program and the extent to which their behavior or on the job results change as a result of the program.


Job Training Indicators


To carry out the training effectiveness evaluation stage, concrete indications are needed which can be used as an objective benchmark for measurement. According to Mangkunegara (2017, p. 62) the indicators of job training are as follows.


Training Objectives

The objectives of the training must be concrete and measurable, therefore the training that will be held aims to improve work skills so that participants are able to achieve maximum performance and increase participants’ understanding of the work ethic that must be applied.



Training materials can be in the form of: management (management), script management, work psychology, work communication, work discipline and ethics, work leadership and work reporting.


Methods Used

The training method used is a training method with participatory techniques, namely group discussions, conferences, simulations, role playing (demonstrations) and games, in-class exercises, tests, teamwork and study visit (comparative study).


Training Participants

Training participants are company employees who meet the qualification requirements such as permanent employees and staff who have received a recommendation from the leadership.


Trainer (Instructor) Qualifications

Trainers/instructors who will provide training materials must meet the qualification requirements, including: have expertise related to training materials, be able to generate motivation and be able to use participatory methods.

How To Write A Professional CV For Software Developers

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Many software developers think, why is there a need to create a CV. After all, is it not possible to check all skills or view projects on a cloud based code hosting platform like gitlab. But, unfortunately, this is not possible or done on all occasions.

Even according to a recent survey of almost 1000 technical job providers, almost 75 percent of applicants were rejected because of their CV. So while one may be hired without a CV, such an opportunity may not work out in all occasions.

Without going into too much detail, let’s start with how to make a good enough professional CV for software developers.

Finding the Right Resume Format
For those on the forefront of digital innovation, it’s clear that preference will be more for a more skill-based format.

Because of this, as a software developer, technical skills are a priority when hiring, so a skills-based resume is the most suitable format. This is because skills-based resumes reflect the specific skills of software developers, making it easier for recruiters to evaluate CVs and check whether applicants align with who they might be looking for.

However, there really isn’t a strict rule that individuals should stick to a skill-based CV format because someone is a software developer, especially if our work experience is phenomenal. Then, of course, there still has to be a chronological style that can help highlight work experience above all else.

Regardless of the format of the CV, as a software developer it is very important to adequately highlight the technical skills throughout the CV.

Standard Resume Section
Since you now have a basic idea of ​​what resume format should look like, below are some tips for writing a standard resume section by section. Let’s start with the standard sections that are on every software developer CV:

Personal information.
Summary of Goals or Summary of Resume.
Work experience.
It’s a very basic section and can be found in almost any CV format because it reveals the important information most recruiters are looking for.

While the information can be entered in a number of ways, not having it can result in a CV being rejected, especially if an ATS (Automatic Tracking System) is performed by the hiring company. Additional sections are optional, but they can give your resume an extra kick if added appropriately. Let’s dig deeper to understand this basic part better.

Personal information
Personal information is a fairly simple part. It’s usually at the very top of the resume and contains contact information. This is also the section where details of the cloud-based code hosting platform are included (gitlab/github addresses). However, it must be ensured that the information is sufficiently substantial. Otherwise, it will be a total waste. Always remember that you will be judged on this information. So, we have to be very careful about that.

Keep in mind that recruiters don’t have much time and likely won’t be able to dig in too much. They also may not have the technical skills to do so (HRDs are usually not application development technical people). Therefore, if they miss the fantastic part of your CV, you are also missing out on the opportunity to get hired.

Summary Or Resume Goals
Writing resume goals is gradually becoming less relevant for software developers. Why? this is so because it is primarily about what kind of career the individual hopes for and not so much about what the individual can offer the employer.

Instead of that, choose resume summary. This helps, especially if a software developer is considering a career change or something important or unique to highlight.

It also provides scope for properly highlighting unique skills and other accomplishments. Additionally, a resume summary helps compel recruiters to read more about the applicant. Hence, it should be added only if there is benefit.

Many hiring managers focus on specific technical skills as these are required to perform certain tasks. However, the best approach is to research the job description and thus thoroughly structure the skills.

This is the flesh and bones of CV software developer. Work experience should be arranged in reverse chronological order. The newest role should be at the top.

This is the most critical part. If you are a new software developer then this section should be at the top. However, if you are experienced, then this part will take a backseat.

Try and limit your CV to one page. You can add a cover letter if you want. Do proof-read and edit CV. It’s best to forward CVs outside of peak hours.

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