Tunalaras: Definition, Characteristics, Classification, Causes, etc
Definition of Tunalaras
Tunalaras are individuals who experience emotional disturbances and behavioral deviations and are unable to adapt to their environment, both within the family, school and community (Asrori, 2020, p. 101). Children with disabilities are often referred to as socially retarded children too, because the behavior shown is continuously contrary to the norms of society. Some examples of mentally retarded behavior take the form of stealing, disturbing friends, hurting other people, and so on (Putranto, 2015, p. 219).
Children with disabilities are also often referred to as children with emotional disturbances (emotionally disturbed), children with psychological disorders (psychologically disturbed), or children with emotional barriers (emotionally handicapped) because they tend not to be able to control their emotions, so they often experience good conflicts with other people. or with yourself (Marlina, 2015, p. 28).
Meanwhile, Hallahan, et al (2019, p. 266), argued that children with disabilities are “those who have behavior that goes to an extreme, a problem that is chronic, and the behavior that is unacceptable because of social or cultural expectations”. That is, individuals with hearing impairment are individuals who have extreme, chronic behavior, and behaviors that are not accepted by social and cultural norms. Thus a person with hearing impairment has behavior that is highly unacceptable to the wider community, not just acting aggressively or being emotional for a moment.
More specifically, Bower (in Delphie 2006: 78), states that a child is said to have emotional barriers or hearing impairment if he shows one or more of the following five components:
learning disability not due to intellectual, sensory or health reasons;
inability to form pleasant relationships with friends and teachers;
behave inappropriately in normal circumstances;
persistent feelings of depression or unhappiness;
tend to show physical symptoms such as fear of school problems.
It can be concluded that mentally retarded individuals are individuals with emotional disturbances or other psychological disorders that cause them to always behave outside social and cultural norms in an extreme and chronic manner on an ongoing basis so that they have difficulty adapting to their environment.
There are many things that can characterize a child as being considered mentally retarded. In simple terms, mentally retarded children can be classified into four categories, namely: children with behavioral disorders, children who experience excessive anxiety, children who are socially aggressive, and children who are immature. According to Marlina, 2015, p. 28-29) each classification or type of tuna has different characteristics which will be presented as follows.
Characteristics of Behavioral Disorders
Characteristics of children with behavioral disorders are as follows.
Likes to fight, hit, and attack
Don’t want to follow the rules
Destroying other people’s property as well as his own
Impolite, insolent and rude
Uncooperative, resistant, and inattentive
Likes to annoy
Negativistic, restless, truant and bossy
Grumpy, seeking attention and likes to show off
Likes to dominate others, threatens, bullies, hyperactive, liar, untrustworthy, and likes to make strange noises
Like envy, jealous, argue
Reckless, stealing, screwing up, and flirting
Refusing to admit mistakes and likes. blame someone else
Characteristics of Anxious Children
The characteristics of an anxious child are as follows.
Tense, overly anxious, too shy, likes to be alone, isolates himself, has no friends.
Feelings of depression, sadness, feeling disturbed, very sensitive, easily hurt, and easily humiliated.
Feeling worthless, lacking confidence and easily frustrated and often crying.
Keeping secrets, quiet, and silent.
Characteristics of Social Aggressive Children
The characteristics of socially aggressive children are as follows.
Having bad associations.
Stealing with other children.
Become a member of a gang.
Roaming till late at night.
Escape from school.
Escape from home.
Characteristics of an Immature Child
Characteristics of immature children are as follows.
Lack of attention, impaired concentration, and daydreaming.
Clumsy, lack of coordination, likes to be dazed, and dream higher.
Lack of initiative, passive, careless, sleepy, lack of interest and easily bored.
Impatient, not persistent in achieving goals and often fails to complete tasks.
Not well dressed.
Characteristics of the Tunalaras
The characteristics of mentally retarded children according to Ibrahim (in Asrori, 2020, p. 102) are as follows.
Intelligence and Academic Achievement
Average disabled children have intelligence (IQ) which after being tested produces a normal distribution of 90, and few have scores above the distribution of normal children’s scores and are most likely to have a mental retardation IQ score and there are also those who have very high intelligence in test scores intelligence. Children with disabilities usually do not reach the expected level for their mental age and it is rare to find that their academic performance increases, and their low performance in reading and mathematics is conspicuous.
Perception and Motor Skills
Children with mental retardation find it difficult to carry out complex activities, feel reluctant in activities, lazy and feel unable to do physical activities. Motor skills are very supportive for individual growth and development in addition to other advantages, such as social development, thinking skills and perceptual awareness. Therefore, this is where it is important to learn physical education such as playing soccer for children with hearing impairments.
Classification of the Tunalaras
Apart from being based on the characteristics or characteristics above, the classification of disabled children according to Santoso can be viewed in terms of disturbances or obstacles and the qualifications of the severity of the delinquency, with the following explanation.
According to the type of disturbance or obstacle, the mentally disabled can be classified as follows.
Emotional Disturbances; Children with emotional impairment who experience obstacles or emotional disturbances are manifested in three types of actions, namely: happy-sad, slow-tempered, and relaxed-depressed. In general, his emotions show sadness, irritability or anger, feeling depressed, and feeling anxious.
Social disorder; This child is disturbed or feels uncomfortable with the association. They cannot adjust to the demands of social life. The symptoms of the act are such as hostility, aggression, speaking harshly, hurting others, fighting, destroying other people’s property and so on. Their actions especially greatly disturb the peace and happiness of others.
Meanwhile, in terms of the severity of delinquency, tunalaras can be classified into several types below.
The size of the emotional disturbance means that the higher the negative feelings towards other people. The deeper the negative feeling, the heavier the child’s level of delinquency.
The frequency of actions, meaning that the frequency of actions is more frequent and does not show remorse for actions that are not good, the more severe the delinquency.
The severity of the violations committed can be known from the legal sanctions.
The place/situation where the delinquency is committed means that the child who dares to commit delinquency in the community has shown seriousness, compared to at home.
It’s easy to be influenced to behave well. The educators or parents can find out how far by all means improve the child. Stubborn and stubborn children are difficult to follow directions, including the heavy group.
Experienced single or multiple disabilities. If a disabled child also has other disabilities, then he is included in the severe group in his development.
Factors Causing Tunalaras
According to Hallahan et al (2019, p. 270) there are several factors that can cause hearing loss, which include the following.
A person’s behavior and emotions can be influenced by several factors within oneself. These factors are hereditary (genetic), neurological, biochemical factors or a combination of these factors. Biological factors can occur when children experience malnutrition, disease, psychosis, and trauma or brain dysfunction.
The family factor in question is the presence of pathological relationships in the family. For example, without realizing it, interactional and transactional relationships in the family are often the main cause of emotional and behavioral problems in children. The influence of rules, discipline, and personality that is exemplified or instilled by parents greatly influences the emotional development and behavior of children.
There are some children who experience emotional and behavioral disturbances when they start school. Experience at school has an impression and significance for children. Social competence when children interact with each other with the behavior of teachers and classmates greatly contributes to emotional and behavioral problems. When a child gets negative responses from teachers and classmates when experiencing difficulties and lacks skills at school, the child is unknowingly entangled in negative interactions. The child will be in a state of irritation and stress resulting from the responses he receives from both the teacher and his classmates.
Standard values of children’s behavior are obtained through demands and prohibitions, and models presented by cultural conditions. Several cultures can affect the emotional development and behavior of children, for example, examples of acts of violence exposed by the media (TV, movies, and the internet), drug abuse which is supposed to be a medical and sedative drug, lifestyles that lead to sexual disorientation, religious demands, and victims of nuclear accidents and wars.
Development of the Tunalaras
According to Sutjihati Somantri (2014, p. 151) disturbed emotional development is a cause of behavioral abnormalities in mentally retarded children, and the salient features of these developmental barriers are:
unstable emotional life
inability to express emotions appropriately, and
lack of self-control so that children with hearing impairment often become very emotional.
Disruption of this emotional life occurs due to the failure of children in passing through the developmental phases. The emotional maturity of a mentally retarded child is determined from the results of interaction with their environment, where children learn about how emotions exist and how to express these emotions. This emotional development takes place continuously according to age development.
If left unchecked and not handled, these various barriers to the development of the disabled will result in them having increasing difficulties in socializing. Children with disabilities will find it difficult to behave in adults, and will experience a decline in social and emotional attitudes. The emotional condition of mentally retarded children tends to be unstable and the instability of this emotional aspect can be seen in their daily behavior. Its concrete manifestation is that it often exhibits deviant behavior, such as irritability, sadness, indifference, stubbornness, feeling anxious, aggressive, withdrawing from association, etc.