Various HR Training Methods according to Experts

Various HR Training Methods according to Experts


Training methods are the systematics, steps and application of certain principles that are used to conduct job training in a more effective and efficient way for a particular context or purpose. Of course, these contexts and objectives can be matched with various training methods that have been developed by human resource management experts and other educational experts.

According to Sedarmayanti (2017, p. 206) several training methods that can be used to provide HR training or HR training include the following.

On the Job Training
On the job training is a training method that is carried out in the actual workplace and is carried out while working. There are two types of On the Job Training methods, namely informal on the job training and formal on the job training. The difference is that in informal on the job training, trainees do not have special trainers, they must pay attention to how other employees who are more senior do their jobs. In contrast, in formal on the job training, participants have a special trainer who will accompany them while carrying out actual work within the organization. On the job training can involve a number of ways of training below.

Rotation of Assignment/Job Rotation/Planned Progression (Job Exchange or Rotation)
This training in the form of job rotation can broaden employee knowledge and skills against the background of participants in the business of an organization or company. Employees move through a series of jobs over a period of six months to two years. The aim is that workers are able to fully understand the entire work system within the company and have the skills for each of its various components.
Coaching and Counseling (Guidance and Counseling)
As implied by its name, this training requires a supervisor to conduct training and counseling for participants. The training is carried out in a way that the participants must carry out their duties under the guidance of senior officials or experts.
Apprenticeship Training (Apprentice)
The internship is carried out by participating in the work/activities carried out by certain position holders, to find out how to carry out an activity.
Demonstration and Example (Demonstration and Giving Example).
In this way of training, trainers or senior staff must give an example/demonstrate how to do the work/how to work a tool/machine.
Off The Job Training
Off the job training is training that is carried out in a separate workplace/outside the workplace, and outside of regular working hours. Off The Job Training consists of several implementation methods below.

Done by using tools/machines in environmental conditions that are made the same or very similar to the actual. Even so, tools, machines, and environmental conditions are mere imitations of actual working conditions. This is of course done to minimize the risk of errors that might occur. This simulation refers to materials that seek to create a realistic decision-making environment for coaches. The simulation method includes several ways below.

Case Study
Case studies are written and narrative presentations of a series of facts from problems analyzed and solved by trainees. Cases are used to stimulate topic discussion, and of all kinds of topics, as case simulations can be simple or complex.
Role Playing
Participants are asked to play certain roles, in certain situations in an artificial organization. It is hoped that participants will have an understanding of certain attitudes and behaviors that must be taken in relation to certain situations or conditions, through the transfer of knowledge/experience.
Business Game (Role Playing in Business)
The form of simulation exercises carried out in class. Organizing the participants is done by dividing the participants into several teams whose task is to competitively solve certain problems from an artificial organization.
Vestibule (Home Training)
Vestibule means the training method used to describe training in a classroom for semi-skilled work. The emphasis of this training method tends to be on learning rather than production, this training method is usually used to train bank tellers, machine operators, typists and similar jobs.
Laboratory Training (Training with Laboratory)
The training method with laboratory equipment is carried out in a way that the participants are brought into a situation where they can witness, feel, and try it for themselves about an event/role so that the training can be more solid and more impressed.
Sensitivity Training
The sensitivity training method is a training method to increase interpersonal sensitivity by demanding open and honest discussions about the feelings, attitudes and behavior of the trainees.
Outbound/Widerness (Outdoor Training)
The outdoor training method is the method used to describe management and executive development programs that take place in the outdoors which include mountaineering, sailing, rafting, mountain biking etc.
Presentation Information
Presentation information is an activity of conveying an idea or information with a specific purpose. This information presentation method includes several learning methods as follows.

Lectures (Lectures)
Lectures are the presentation of information orally. In general, this method is carried out by conducting lectures or speeches from trainers which are delivered scientifically for teaching purposes and lectures are the most commonly carried out training.
Conference (Conference / Seminar)
Conferences are conducted in groups, containing discussions supervised by evaluators. After the discussion is over, the evaluator assesses and measures the overall discussion that has been carried out by the participants.
Programmmed Instruction (programmed instructions)
Programmed instruction or programmed instruction is the presentation of information that already uses a programmed/certain pattern. These various patterns can be adapted to the needs and goals of the training itself. For example, if an employee’s job consists of several important basics that must be known before carrying out the practice, then the program can be set up as concept training and practice which will be carried out sequentially.
Determine Training Methods
So how can we ensure that the training methods used are in accordance with the needs and goals of the organization? What must be done is to do an analysis first which is commonly referred to as a training needs analysis. A training needs analysis can also address an employer’s long-term strategic training needs and/or training needs that are needed now or as soon as possible (Dessler, 2019, pp. 286-314).

Strategic Training Needs Analysis
Strategic training needs analysis identifies the training employees will need to fill new jobs in the future. The results from this analysis will support employer succession planning. While the analysis of current training needs, most training efforts aim to improve current performance, especially training new employees, and those who are underperforming. Doing a needs analysis today is more complex because you also have to ascertain whether training is the solution. There are several types of analysis that can be done, namely as follows.

task Analysis,
detailed study of a job to determine the specific skills required. For task analysis job descriptions and job specifications are essential. Both state the specific duties and skills of the job, which serve as a basic reference in determining the required training.
talent Management,
to consolidate the abilities and competencies possessed by the staff as a whole which are usually made in one diagram which contains a precise overview of the competencies that a person will need to do the job well.
performance Analysis,
namely the process of verifying if there are performance deficiencies and determining whether the employer should correct the deficiencies through training or other means.
performance Analysis,
is the process of verifying if there are performance deficiencies and determining whether the employer should correct the deficiencies through training or other means.
In addition to analysis before the training is carried out, we can also find out exactly what training is needed by evaluating the training that has been carried out. How does the training affect? Is it effective in increasing employee performance and productivity? Can an activity ensure the success of the training program as measured by the reactions of the trainees? What have the trainees learned from the program? and to what extent did their behavior or training outcomes change as a result of the program?

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