Work Performance Assessment: Definition, Factors, Indicators, Assessment Methods, etc

Work Performance Assessment: Definition, Factors, Indicators, Assessment Methods, etc



Definition of Work Performance

Work performance is a result of work achieved by a person in carrying out the tasks assigned to him based on skill and sincerity or quality of performance and timeliness (Hasibuan, 2016, p. 94). In other words, work performance is the achievement of someone who has succeeded in providing work results and good performance. As stated by Dharma (2018, p. 1) that work performance is the process of work performance or achievement of work results given by a person or group of people.



Meanwhile, according to Sutrisno (2019, p. 150) work performance is the result of a person’s efforts which are determined by the ability of his personal characteristics and the perception of his role in the job. Thus a person’s achievement can be judged from the ability, characteristics or attitude of the employee, to the suitability of the role in the job or position he has.


In further detail Mangkunegara (2017, p. 13) explains that work performance is the result of work in quality and quantity achieved by an employee in carrying out his duties in accordance with the responsibilities given to him, work results in quality and quantity achieved by employees in carry out their duties in accordance with the responsibilities assigned to them.



It can be concluded that work performance is the result of work that has been achieved by a person in carrying out the tasks assigned to him through good skills, quality and quantity and in accordance with the purpose, portion and role in the job.



Factors Affecting Job Performance

Work performance of an employee cannot be obtained just like that, but is obtained through the process and conditions of work. Work performance achieved by employees is important in ensuring the survival of the organization. To ensure work performance can be achieved by employees, there are several factors that can be considered to trigger it. According to Mangkunegara (2017, p. 13) the factors that influence work performance include the following.


Capability Factor

Psychologically, employee abilities/abilities consist of potential abilities (IQ) and reality abilities (knowledge+skills). This means that employees who have an IQ above the average (110-120) with adequate education for their position and are skilled in doing their daily work, it will be easier for them to achieve the expected performance. Therefore employees need to be placed in jobs that match their expertise.

Motivational Factors

Motivation is in the form of an employee’s attitude in dealing with work situations. Motivation is a condition of self-motivated employees who are directed to achieve organizational goals (work goals).

Meanwhile, according to Sutrisno (2016, p. 152) there are six factors which are key areas of achievement for the company concerned, namely as follows.


Work result

The level of quantity and quality that has been produced and the extent to which supervision is carried out.

Job knowledge

The level of knowledge related to work assignments will directly affect the quantity and quality of work results.


The level of initiative during carrying out work assignments, especially in terms of experiencing problems that arise.

Mental prowess

The level of ability and speed in receiving work instructions adjusts to the way of work and the existing work situation.


The level of work enthusiasm and positive attitude in carrying out work tasks reflects one’s feelings towards something.

Time and attendance discipline

Timeliness rate and attendance rate. Routines carried out by employees to prove themselves present in an agency. Discipline determined by each company or agency.

Work Performance Indicators

According to Sutrisno (2016, p. 152) there are 6 work performance indicators which are as follows.



Work result

The level of quantity and quality that has been produced and the extent to which supervision is carried out.

Job Knowledge

The level of knowledge related to work assignments will directly affect the quantity and quality of work results.


The level of initiative while carrying out work assignments, especially in terms of handling problems that arise.

Mental Dexterity

The level of ability and speed in receiving work instructions and completing work methods and existing work situations.


The level of enthusiasm for work and a positive attitude in carrying out work.

Time and attendance discipline

Timeliness rate and attendance rate.

Work Performance Assessment

To find out the level of employee performance can be done by conducting a performance appraisal. Performance appraisal is a process of evaluating or assessing employee performance. Employees can be said to have good work performance if they can provide the best results for their work to achieve or exceed the standards or criteria set by the company.


According to Rivai in (Hartatik, 2019, p. 126) there are two methods of evaluating employee performance that can be used to assess employee achievement and performance, namely as follows.


Past Oriented Assessment Methods

This past-oriented assessment method compares a person’s work performance with other employees who carry out similar activities. Past oriented assessment can be done in several ways as follows.


Rating scale (Rating Scale)

Assessments related to employee work results on certain scales, this assessment is based on expert opinion and criteria directly related to work results.

List of questions (Checklist)

This list contains a number of questions that describe the various levels of employee behavior towards a job.

Method with directed choice (Forced Choice Method)

This method approach to reduce and eliminate the possibility of bias in the assessment of work performance.

Critical Incident Method

The method is based on the appraiser’s critical record of very good or very bad employee behavior in carrying out the work.

Achievement record method

This method is closely related to the critical incident method and records of improvement and work-related activities.

Rating Scale Associated With Behavior

This method is a way of assessing employee performance for a certain period of time in the past by associating a performance rating scale with certain behaviors.

Field Review Method (Field Review Method)

Appraisers go directly to the field with experts from HR. HR specialists get information about employee performance and evaluate it.

Work Performance Observation Test (Performance Test and Observation)

Tests based on knowledge and skills tests are in the form of written tests and demonstrations, with the condition that the tests must be valid and reliable.

Future Oriented Assessment Methods

Meanwhile the future assessment method is an assessment that is carried out with the assumption that an employee will be able to realistically determine his career plan and choose the development technique that is suitable for him. Several future-oriented work performance appraisal methods are as follows.


Self Assessment (Self Appraisal)

The assessment is carried out by the employee himself with the hope that the employee will be more familiar with his strengths/weaknesses, so that he is able to identify aspects of work behavior that need to be improved in the future.

Management by Objective (Management by Objective)

A form of appraisal in which employees and supervisors jointly set goals and objectives for future work.

Psychological Assessment

Psychologists carry out assessments to determine a person’s potential. This assessment is carried out through psychological tests by way of interviews/written tests to assess the potential of employees in the future.

Assessment Center

Assessment is carried out with a series of techniques to determine a person’s potential in carrying out greater responsibilities.

Elements of Work Performance Assessment

There are several important elements in evaluating work performance, these elements help agencies/companies in assessing the work performance of all employees. According to Hasibuan (in Hartatik, 2019, p. 130) the basic elements in assessing work performance are as follows.



Appraisers assess job loyalty to work, position and, organization. This loyalty is reflected by the willingness of employees to protect and defend the organization both inside and outside of work.


The appraiser assesses the quality and quantity of work results that can be produced by employees from their job descriptions.


Appraisers assess honesty and carry out their duties fulfilling agreements, both for themselves and for others.


The appraiser assesses the employee’s discipline in complying with existing regulations and doing his job according to the instructions given to him.


Appraisers assess the ability of employees to develop their creativity to complete work, so that work is more efficient and effective.


Appraisers assess the participation and cooperation of an employee, both vertically and horizontally, inside and outside of work.


Appraisers assess the ability of employees to lead, influence, and have a strong personality, respected, authoritative and able to motivate others.


The appraiser assesses the attitude, behavior, politeness, cheerfulness, discussion, gives a pleasant impression, pays attention to good attitude, and a sympathetic and reasonable appearance from the employee.


Appraisers assess the thinking ability of an employee based on initiatives to analyze, assess, create, give reasons, draw conclusions, and make decisions on problems faced.


Appraisers assess the willingness of employees to be accountable for policies, work, work results, facilities and infrastructure used.

Benefits of Job Performance Assessment

Sunyoto (2019, p. 201) defines work performance appraisal as a process through which organizations evaluate or assess employee performance. The usefulness of work performance appraisal can be broken down as follows.


Work Performance Improvement

In this case, performance feedback allows employees, managers and personnel departments to improve their activities.

Compensation Adjustments

As material for making decisions in awarding compensation, performance appraisal helps decision makers to determine the appropriate amount of wages and salaries.

Placement Decisions

A person’s past work performance is the basis for making decisions on promotions, transfers and demotions or demotions.

Training and development needs

Having low work performance means that it is possible to hold training to overcome various deficiencies and weaknesses and be able to develop the potential of employees who have not been fully explored.

Career Planning and Development

To ensure the feedback of an employee, they must be supported by self-development and career thereby ensuring the effectiveness of the company.

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